Carbon dioxide is soluble in water, making carbonic acid. This is not very stable, existing as an equilibrium between carbonic acid and carbon dioxide/water, and cannot be concentrated.
CO2 + H2O ⇌ H2CO3
However, this limited temporary solubility can still be taken advantage of in converting hydroxides to carbonates, such as in the treatment of limewater with carbon dioxide to precipitate calcium carbonate. Carbon dioxide can also be used as an acid to oxidize some species, such as the oxidation of potassium manganate to permanganate.
Carbon dioxide is released in many chemical reactions, usually because of the acidification of a carbonate.
Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas. It cannot be isolated in liquid form at room temperature, but sublimes. In solid form, it is called "dry ice", and used for chilling experiments. Carbon dioxide is a relatively cheap inert gas, and although for most chemicals it may cause reaction, it is a good storage gas for most reactive metals.
Carbon dioxide is available by generation from common materials (like sodium bicarbonate), from the air, in canisters, or in the form of dry ice, which may be sold at grocery stores. Dry ice may also be produced by placing the end of a fire extinguisher(which often contains carbon dioxide) into a bag and releasing the pressurized gas. Fresh dry ice is formed within the confines of the bag.
Acidification of a carbonate or bicarbonate releases carbon dioxide, which is a cheap way to generate it. Burning organic materials will also generate carbon dioxide, but will also generate soot, water vapor, formaldehyde, aromatic compounds, so it's best to bubble the resulting smoke into a liquid or an adsorption column that will remove the contaminants.
- Cooling baths
- Make calcium bicarbonate solution
- Gas nozzles
Carbon dioxide is not directly poisonous, like carbon monoxide, but it will lower the pH of the blood to dangerous levels if it is inhaled in excess. Carbon dioxide
The extreme cold of solid carbon dioxide can immediately cause reverse thermal burns if it comes into contact with skin.
Compressed carbon dioxide should be stored in cold places, away from heat. Dry ice should be stored in dewars, as well away from heat sources. Storage should not be done over long periods of time. Both forms should not be stored in chambers lower than ground level, as CO2 may build-up and pose an asphyxiation hazard.
Carbon dioxide can be released in open air. Avoid releasing it in an enclosed space.